New Face of Job Quality Challenge in India: Gig Worker Studies


  • Farhat Haque XLRI Jamshedpur
  • Abdul Rahman Dard Business Administration Department, Nangarhar University




This research aims to describe the gig worker challenge and opportunity including job quality in India remembering that gig work is spreading rapidly among nations and has been the source of earning for most of the destitute population.


This research uses qualitative method with descriptive approach. Author used semi-structured interview to 10 (ten) informants by using purposive sampling with snowballing technique. The informants are the GIG worker who work around Indian metro cities.


The way their economic, psychological and social aspects are grilled with least positive chances of betterment has been our concern. The three aggregate dimensions mainly focussing towards, economic, psychological and social well-being of employees.

Research limitations/implications                                                                                                                                                                                  

This research may use for government to improve the job quality of GIG worker. If nations could not come up with formal and permanent employment opportunities, the job quality of gig economy can at least be enhanced.


This study describes comprehensively by using interview to reveal challenge and opportunity in gig worker job quality in India.


Abílio, L. C. (2020). Uberização: a era do trabalhador just-in-time? Estudos Avançados, 34, 111–126.

Altenried, M. (2020). The platform as factory: Crowdwork and the hidden labour behind artificial intelligence. Capital & Class, 44(2), 145–158.

Anwar, M. A., & Graham, M. (2021). Between a rock and a hard place: Freedom, flexibility, precarity and vulnerability in the gig economy in Africa. Competition & Change, 25(2), 237–258.

Arnoldi, E., Bosua, R., & Dirksen, V. (2021). Mapping themes for the well-being of low-skilled gig workers: Implications for digital platform design. Transitions: Journal of Transient Migration, 5(1), 55–75.

Banihani, M., & Syed, J. (2020). Gendered work engagement: Qualitative insights from Jordan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(5), 611–637.

Berg, J., & Johnston, H. (2019). Too good to be true? A comment on Hall and Krueger’s analysis of the labor market for Uber’s driver-partners. ILR Review, 72(1), 39–68.

Bernhardt, A., Batt, R., Houseman, S., & Appelbaum, E. (2016). Domestic outsourcing in the US: a research agenda to assess trends and effects on job quality.

Butschek, S., Amor, R. G., Kampkötter, P., & Sliwka, D. (2022). Motivating gig workers–evidence from a field experiment. Labour Economics, 75, 102105.

Cazes, S., Hijzen, A., & Saint-Martin, A. (2015). Measuring and assessing job quality: the OECD job quality framework.

Choudhary, V., & Shireshi, S. S. (2022). Analysing the gig economy in India and exploring various effective regulatory methods to improve the plight of the workers. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 57(7), 1343–1356.

Christie, N., & Ward, H. (2019). The health and safety risks for people who drive for work in the gig economy. Journal of Transport & Health, 13, 115–127.

Clark, A. (2005). What makes a good job? Evidence from OECD countries. In Job quality and employer behaviour (pp. 11–30). Springer.

Cole, M., Radice, H., & Umney, C. (2020). The political economy of datafication and work: A New digital taylorism. Socialist Register, 57, 78–99.

De Stefano, V. (2015). The rise of the just-in-time workforce: On-demand work, crowdwork, and labor protection in the gig-economy. Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J., 37, 471.

Duggan, J., Sherman, U., Carbery, R., & McDonnell, A. (2020). Algorithmic management and app‐work in the gig economy: A research agenda for employment relations and HRM. Human Resource Management Journal, 30(1), 114–132.

Dunn, M. (2020). Making gigs work: digital platforms, job quality and worker motivations. New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(2), 232–249.

Etzioni, A. (2018). Benefits for gig workers. Challenge, 61(3), 255–268.

Findlay, P., Kalleberg, A. L., & Warhurst, C. (2013). The challenge of job quality. Human Relations, 66(4), 441–451.

Ganapati, S., & Reddick, C. G. (2018). Prospects and challenges of sharing economy for the public sector. Government Information Quarterly, 35(1), 77–87.

Gaur, A. S., Kumar, V., & Singh, D. (2014). Institutions, resources, and internationalization of emerging economy firms. Journal of World Business, 49(1), 12–20.

Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G., & Hamilton, A. L. (2013). Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16(1), 15–31.

Goods, C., Veen, A., & Barratt, T. (2019). “Is your gig any good?” Analysing job quality in the Australian platform-based food-delivery sector. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(4), 502–527.

Hall, J. V, & Krueger, A. B. (2018). An analysis of the labor market for Uber’s driver-partners in the United States. Ilr Review, 71(3), 705–732.

Healy, J., Nicholson, D., & Pekarek, A. (2017). Should we take the gig economy seriously? Labour & Industry: A Journal of the Social and Economic Relations of Work, 27(3), 232–248.

Huws, U., Spencer, N. H., & Syrdal, D. S. (2018). Online, on call: The spread of digitally organised just‐in‐time working and its implications for standard employment models. New Technology, Work and Employment, 33(2), 113–129.

Jabagi, N., Croteau, A.-M., Audebrand, L. K., & Marsan, J. (2019). Gig-workers’ motivation: Thinking beyond carrots and sticks. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Jarrahi, M. H., & Sutherland, W. (2019). Algorithmic management and algorithmic competencies: Understanding and appropriating algorithms in gig work. Information in Contemporary Society: 14th International Conference, IConference 2019, Washington, DC, USA, March 31–April 3, 2019, Proceedings 14, 578–589.

Johnston, H., & Land-Kazlauskas, C. (2018). Organizing on-demand: Representation, voice, and collective bargaining in the gig economy.

Josserand, E., & Kaine, S. (2019). Different directions or the same route? The varied identities of ride-share drivers. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(4), 549–573.

Kaine, S., & Josserand, E. (2019). The organisation and experience of work in the gig economy. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(4), 479–501.

Kalleberg, A. L., & Vaisey, S. (2005). Pathways to a good job: Perceived work quality among the machinists in North America. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 43(3), 431–454.

Kashyap, R., & Bhatia, A. (2018). Taxi drivers and taxidars: a case study of Uber and Ola in Delhi. Journal of Developing Societies, 34(2), 169–194.

Knox, A. J., & Warhurst, C. (2015). Job quality in Australia: perspectives, problems and proposals. Federation Press.

Knox, A., Warhurst, C., Nickson, D., & Dutton, E. (2015). More than a feeling: Using hotel room attendants to improve understanding of job quality. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(12), 1547–1567.

Kuhn, K. M. (2016). The rise of the “gig economy” and implications for understanding work and workers. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 157–162.

Kuhn, K. M., & Galloway, T. L. (2019). Expanding perspectives on gig work and gig workers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 34(4), 186–191.

Liu, W., He, C., Jiang, Y., Ji, R., & Zhai, X. (2020). Effect of gig workers’ psychological contract fulfillment on their task performance in a sharing economy—A perspective from the mediation of organizational identification and the moderation of length of service. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2208.

Mehta, B. S. (2020). Changing nature of work and the gig economy: Theory and debate. FIIB Business Review, 2319714520968294.

Mukherjee, A. (2013). The service sector in India. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series, 352.

Myhill, K., Richards, J., & Sang, K. (2021). Job quality, fair work and gig work: The lived experience of gig workers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(19), 4110–4135.

Nataraj, S., Perez‐Arce, F., Kumar, K. B., & Srinivasan, S. V. (2014). The impact of labor market regulation on employment in low‐income countries: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Economic Surveys, 28(3), 551–572.

Sariraei, S. A., Chênevert, D., & Vandenberghe, C. (2022). What Is on Your Gig Radar? Toward a Hierarchical Structure of Coping. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(21), 14219.

Shade, L. R. (2018). Hop to it in the gig economy: The sharing economy and neo-liberal feminism. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 14(1), 35–54.

Spreitzer, G. M., Cameron, L., & Garrett, L. (2017). Alternative work arrangements: Two images of the new world of work. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 473–499.

Stanford, J. (2017). The resurgence of gig work: Historical and theoretical perspectives. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 382–401.

Stewart, A., & Stanford, J. (2017). Regulating work in the gig economy: What are the options? The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 420–437.

Surie, A. (2018). Are Ola and Uber drivers entrepreneurs or exploited workers. Economic and Political Weekly, 53(24), 1–7.

Surie, A., & Koduganti, J. (2016). The emerging nature of work in platform economy companies in Bengaluru, India: The case of Uber and Ola Cab drivers. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies.

Tan, Z. M., Aggarwal, N., Cowls, J., Morley, J., Taddeo, M., & Floridi, L. (2021). The ethical debate about the gig economy: A review and critical analysis. Technology in Society, 65, 101594.

Valenduc, G., & Vendramin, P. (2017). Digitalisation, between disruption and evolution. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(2), 121–134.

Vallas, S., & Schor, J. B. (2020). What do platforms do? Understanding the gig economy. Annual Review of Sociology, 46(1), 273–294.

Van Doorn, N. (2017). Platform labor: On the gendered and racialized exploitation of low-income service work in the ‘on-demand’economy. Information, Communication & Society, 20(6), 898–914.

Wood, A. J., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., & Hjorth, I. (2019). Networked but commodified: The (dis) embeddedness of digital labour in the gig economy. Sociology, 53(5), 931–950.

Zietlow, R. E. (2020). The new peonage: Liberty and precarity for workers in the gig economy. Wake Forest L. Rev., 55, 1087.

Zwick, A. (2018). Welcome to the Gig Economy: neoliberal industrial relations and the case of Uber. GeoJournal, 83, 679–691.