Literature Review on Theories of International Trade and Policies Behind Modern World Trade


  • Bharat Centre for Economic Studies and Planning (CESP), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
  • Vijay Kumar Department of Economics, Chaudhary Ranbir Singh University, Jind, Haryana
  • Sachin Sharma Department of Economics, Chaudhary Ranbir Singh University, Jind, Haryana
  • Shallu Sehgal Shoolini Institute of Life Sciences and Business Management, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
  • Babloo Jakhar Department of Extension Education, Regional Institute of Education, Ajmer, India



International trade, trade and policy, trade theories, trade, growth



The essay aims to critically examine different theories proposed in the literature on international trade.


The essay is based on theoretical literature on the theories of international trade and working policies behind modern world trade globally.


The essay starts with traditional theories of international trade and an account of the mercantilist pattern of trade is provided, and comments are made on the use of simplified models in the classical theories. Significant focus is laid on the new trade theory and the use of strategic trade policies by advanced countries. A helpful supplement is provided regarding the role of FDI and technology in trade. A further effect of trade on growth is also analyzed. Theories of the 21st century are discussed with a call for models that can incorporate income inequality, political strategies, and other real-world factors.

Research limitations/ implications

The essay deals with only theoretical literature on international trade theories and policies. Findings and interpretation are subject to the theoretical development of international trade.

Originality/ value

The essay provided a critical explanation of international trade theories and tried to explain the paradigm shift in the theoretical framework of international trade.


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Braudel, Fernand. (1979). The Wheels of Commerce, Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century.

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