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by gold stone (2019-04-16)

There is also drug-induced PhysioTru Review parkinsonism, which is caused mostly by drugs to treat severe mental illness. This form of parkinsonism is usually reversed when the drug is discontinued or its dosage decreased. Parkinsonism also may be caused by disorders such as encephalitis and hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis), or following certain brain injuries, including those caused by a stroke.Parkinsonism is believed to be related to the substantia nigra (black substance) of the nerve cells, which produce and store a chemical substance called dopamine--one of several neurotransmitters. (A neurotransmitter relays messages from the brain across a small open space--or synapse--at the junction of the nerves.) Parkinson's disease apparently interferes with dopamine storage and/or production, which causes disturbances in nerve message transmission. This, in turn, leads to shaking or other defective motor responses. In addition to dopamine depletion, parkinsonism also seems to involve an excess of cholinergic activity. Treatment, therefore, entails either increasing the concentration of dopamine or decreasing the concentration of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that causes symptoms of Parkinson's disease when dopamine levels are reduced. Both treatments are often used.Parkinson's disease usually starts very gradually. Early symptoms, which may go unnoticed for years, include stiffness of the hands, fatigue or weakness, depression and a slight limp or changes in posture. The symptoms increase and eventually may develop into full-blown parkinsonism, exhibiting muscular rigidity, tremor and slowness of movement. Other symptoms vary from patient to patient and may include soft, monotonous or slow speech, difficulty in swallowing, trouble in walking, shuffling, a change in bowel habits, slow urination, excessive sweating or drooling. Symptoms often are limited to one side of the body. Diagnosis is sometimes assisted by analysis of the patient's handwriting, which may show evidence of tremor, is typically small and tends to decrease in size with the passage of time.A short while ago, a diagnosis of parkinsonism was a lifelong condemnation. But parkinsonism has become a very treatable condition, and many patients are able to function normally for many years.